- W. J. Riley, "The Calculation of Time Domain Frequency Stability".
- W.J. Riley, "The Basics of Frequency Stability Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "The Hadamard Variance".
- W.J. Riley, "Methodologies for Time Domain Frequency Stability Measurement and Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "Application of the 3-Cornered Hat Method to the Analysis Of Frequency Stability".
- W.J. Riley, "Gaps, Outliers, Dead Time, and Uneven Spacing in Frequency Stability Data".
- W.J. Riley, "References for Frequency Stability Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "Techniques for Frequency Stability Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "Use of the Autocorrelation Function for Frequency Stability Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "Algorithms for Frequency Jump Detection".
- W.J. Riley, "Frequency Jump Detection and Analysis".
- W.J. Riley, "The Averaging of Phase and Frequency Data".
- W.J. Riley, "Outliers in Time and Frequency Measurements".
- W.J. Riley, "The Statistics of Time Transfer".
- W.J. Riley, "The Evolution of Frequency Stability Analysis Software".
- C.A Greenhall, D.A. Howe and D.B. Percival, "Total Variance, an Estimator of Long-Term Frequency Stability".
- D. Howe, et al., "A Total Estimator of the Hadamard Function Used For GPS Operations".
- C.A Greenhall and W.J. Riley, "Uncertainty of Stability Variances Based on Finite Differences" and Accompanying Software: EDF Program, Help File, Source Code.
- W.J. Riley and C.A. Greenhall, "Power Law Noise Identification Using the Lag 1 Autocorrelation".
- W.J. Riley, "Techniques for Frequency Stability Analysis".
- W.J. Riley,
*Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis*. You can buy a printed copy of this book at Handbook, and download it as NIST Special Publication 1065. - Please note that there is a typo in SP1065 Eq. 28 for TTOTVAR on p. 26: The tau exponent should be 2, not 3. And Eq. 9 is missing brackets around the inner summation - use Eq. 11 instead
- W.J. Riley, "Learn Frequency Stability Analysis Using Stable32".
- W.J. Riley, "Frequency Stability Analysis Using R".
- D.B
Sullivan, D.W Allan, D.A. Howe and F.L.Walls (Editors),"Characterization of
Clocks and Oscillators",
*NIST Technical Note 1337*, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, March 1990. - D.W. Allan, N. Ashby and C.C. Hodge, "The Science of Timekeeping", Hewlett-Packard Company Application Note 1289.
- J.R. Vig, "Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards".
- An excerpt from NBS Monograph 140 containing the classic Annex 8.E example for the calculation of the Allan variance.

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Last revised:
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